One possible way to reduce the verification costs is software testing in early development phases. Even though early verification requires additional testing and modelling effort, costs can be reduced by avoiding cost-intensive design iterations through different development phases. In particular, early verification applies to complex distributed software.
Well known techniques for early verification are model-in-the-loop (MIL) and software-in-the-loop (SIL). Both verification techniques are used with an environment simulation to activate the software. This allows testing of the software functionality without the use of real hardware. The main disadvantages of these techniques are that hardware characteristics and timing behaviour are not considered sufficiently to find hardware-related software errors. To close this gap between MIL, SIL, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), an additional verification step using virtual hardware-in-the-loop (VHIL) is proposed.
The VHIL approach has been applied to the MOST High Protocol (MHP) [4, 5]. MHP provides packet data transfer in MOST networks. It is a connection-oriented protocol using some mechanisms of the transmission control protocol (TCP). The virtual prototype provides precise timing information and the functional behaviour of the final hardware implementation at the software level. Test description, execution, and analysis are done using the TTWorkbench from Testing Technologies. TTWorkbench is a TTCN-3-based test modelling and automation environment.
This approach allows a fast test description and ensures reuse of the developed test cases for regression or hardware tests by interfacing the virtual and the real network. In order to include the timing and functional behaviour of the MOST network, synchronization mechanisms between TTWorkbench and the virtual prototype have been implemented.
Virtual prototype for MHP verification
The MOST MHP virtual prototype consists of a configurable number of devices and corresponding interconnection components. The devices encapsulate the original MHP protocol stack and are modelled as concurrent processes using SystemC and C++.
SystemC is a C++-based modelling and simulation language that covers concurrency and timing aspects during simulation of embedded software and the underlying hardware platform. The device interconnection is done using Transaction Level Modelling techniques (TLM-2.0) to accelerate the system simulation. TLM is a high-level approach for abstract modelling of communication among modules. The messages, which are transferred via the communication channels and other status parameters, are traced for analysis and automatic checking of properties during simulation.
To provide timing and functional behaviour of the hardware to the simulation model, it is necessary to introduce different elements presenting either hardware or software components. The software components are the encapsulated MHP protocol stack, the call-back functions, and the Application. Hardware components e.g. are the NetInterface representing the INIC and the timer component, which provides timing functionality to the protocol stack.
In order to support testing of different protocol versions or applications, some components of the virtual device can be exchanged. Therefore, a library that can be easily extended with new hardware or software components is introduced. These elements are selected by the network configuration before the simulation starts.
For communication with other devices, every device includes a TLM-2.0 port (figure 1). The data transmission via the TLM ports is abstracted. This means that not every bit of a frame is simulated, but the complete MHP messages are transmitted between different devices. The ports of the devices are interconnected by a technique called many-to-many binding. Both abstractions lead to an increasing simula- tion performance and have a minimal effect on timing accuracy during the simulation.
The simulation model is configured by .xml files that are loaded before the simulation starts. The configuration file includes simulation and device configuration. The transaction description for transaction-based protocol verification is defined by the connected test tool TTWorkbench. The simulation configuration defines the simulation time, an instance of an optional host, and up to 64 devices. The device configuration selects the elements such as the application or the protocol stack from the library and configures the elements itself. For example the protocol stack is configured with the number of Tx and Rx connections and the packet size for data transmission by the MHP protocol.
Different elements of the virtual prototype include monitors to trace e.g. state changes, packet losses, and exchanged messages via the communication channel during simulation. This data is stored in files together with time stamps for later analysis. Therefore, different file formats are supported, e.g. a text format and a format that can be processed by the SMSC OptoLyzer Suite or the MOST System Radar. This ensures that the simulation results of the virtual prototype can be compared to results using the real hardware in later phases.
Checking can be done either by introduced assertions using the tracing information or by an optional host that has access to the communication channels. The host can trigger instances of devices by sending MHP messages, and also check received messages compared to defined sequences and timing constraints (figure 2).
Additionally, the virtual host can trigger the application of a device directly and is able to simulate multiple sources and sinks. This allows control of the whole test from the host. If these features are supported by the real hardware, tests are reusable.